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Publication : The mechanism of secondary nondisjunction in Drosophila melanogaster females.

First Author  Xiang Youbin Year  2006
Journal  Genetics Volume  174
Pages  67-78 PubMed ID  16816415
Abstract Text  Bridges (1916) observed that X chromosome nondisjunction was much more frequent in XXY females than it was in genetically normal XX females. In addition, virtually all cases of X nondisjunction in XXY females were due to XX <-->Y segregational events in oocytes in which the two X chromosomes had failed to undergo crossing over. He referred to these XX <-->Y segregation events as "secondary nondisjunction."Cooper (1948) proposed that secondary nondisjunction results from the formation of an X-Y-X trivalent, such that the Y chromosome directs the segregation of two achiasmate X chromosomes to opposite poles on the first meiotic spindle. Using in situ hybridization to X and YL chromosomal satellite sequences, we demonstrate that XX <-->Y segregations are indeed presaged by physical associations of the X and Y chromosomal heterochromatin. The physical colocalization of the three sex chromosomes is observed in virtually all oocytes in early prophase and maintained at high frequency until midprophase in all genotypes examined. Although these XXY associations are usually dissolved by late prophase in oocytes that undergo X chromosomal crossing over, they are maintained throughout prophase in oocytes with nonexchange X chromosomes. The persistence of such XXY associations in the absence of exchange presumably facilitates the segregation of the two X chromosomes and the Y chromosome to opposite poles on the developing meiotic spindle. Moreover, the observation that XXY pairings are dissolved at the end of pachytene in oocytes that do undergo X chromosomal crossing over demonstrates that exchanges can alter heterochromatic (and thus presumably centromeric) associations during meiotic prophase. Doi  10.1534/genetics.106.061424
Issue  1 Month  Sep

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