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Publication : E4orf4 induces PP2A- and Src-dependent cell death in Drosophila melanogaster and at the same time inhibits classic apoptosis pathways.

First Author  Pechkovsky Antonina Year  2013
Journal  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. Volume  110
Pages  E1724-33 PubMed ID  23613593
Abstract Text  The adenovirus E4orf4 protein regulates the progression of viral infection, and when expressed alone in mammalian tissue culture cells it induces protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55- and Src-dependent cell death, which is more efficient in oncogene-transformed cells than in normal cells. This form of cell death is caspase-independent, although it interacts with classic caspase-dependent apoptosis. PP2A-B55-dependent E4orf4-induced toxicity is highly conserved in evolution from yeast to mammalian cells. In this work we investigated E4orf4-induced cell death in a whole multicellular organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We show that E4orf4 induced low levels of cell killing, caused by both caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Drosophila PP2A-B55 (twins/abnormal anaphase resolution) and Src64B contributed additively to this form of cell death. Our results provide insight into E4orf4-induced cell death, demonstrating that in parallel to activating caspase-dependent apoptosis, E4orf4 also inhibited this form of cell death induced by the proapoptotic genes reaper, head involution defective, and grim. The combination of both induction and inhibition of caspase-dependent cell death resulted in low levels of tissue damage that may explain the inefficient cell killing induced by E4orf4 in normal cells in tissue culture. Furthermore, E4orf4 inhibited JNK-dependent cell killing as well. However, JNK inhibition did not impede E4orf4-induced toxicity and even enhanced it, indicating that E4orf4-induced cell killing is a distinctive form of cell death that differs from both JNK- and Rpr/Hid/Grim-induced forms of cell death. Doi  10.1073/pnas.1220282110
Issue  19 Month  May

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